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The B Vitamins

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Change My Profile B12.Vit.mcg Folate.mcg


Thiamin is a co-enzyme necessary in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein. It also needed in passing genetic information to cells during cell division. A deficiency could cause beriberi, a disease that effects the nervous, muscular, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems.
Food sources include wheat germ, beans and lentils, lean pork, and spinach. Since thiamin is water soluble, cooking in water will cause loss of the vitamin into the cooking water.
DV - 1.5mg
RDA - Women 31-50 years - 1.1mg - UL - ~
RDA - Women - Pregnancy - 1.4mg - UL - ~
RDA - Men 31-50 years - 1.2mg - UL - ~


Riboflavin is a coenzyme necessary in metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fat. It is necessary in the proper processing of other vitamins such as niacin, B6, and folic acid. It helps facilitate the absorption of iron so a deficiency may lead to anemia. Studies have also shown that sufficient intake of riboflavin may reduce the risk of developing age related cataracts.
The water soluble vitamin is also very easily destroyed by light and heat. Minimize exposure of foods to sunlight to prevent vitamin loss. Food sources include eggs, liver, dairy products and fortified cereals.
DV - 1.7mg
RDA - Women 31-50 years - 1.1mg - UL - ~
RDA - Women - Pregnancy - 1.4mg - UL - ~
RDA - Men 31-50 years - 1.3mg - UL - ~


Niacin is a coenzyme necessary in metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fat. It also is necessary for proper brain and central nervous system functions.
Deficiency may cause pellegra, a disease characterized by severe mental disturbances, scaly skin eruptions and irritations of the tongue and intestinal lining. Niacin is water soluble, thus cooking in water will cause loss of the vitamin into the cooking water.
Food sources include meat, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and fortified cereals.
The UL (Upper Limits) for niacin applies to synthetic forms obtained from supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two.
DV - 20mg
RDA - Women 31-50 years - 14mg - UL - 35mg
RDA - Women - Pregnancy - 18mg - UL - 35mg
RDA - Men 31-50 years - 16mg - UL - 35mg

B5.Pantothenic Acid

Pantothenic Acid is part of an essential substance called coenzyme A (CoA), required for the proper processing and metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fat. It is also necessary in the synthesizing of red blood cells. Pantothenic Acid is a water soluble vitamin that can also be destroyed by processing methods such as the refining of grains, freezing and canning foods. Food sources include eggs, liver, poultry, peanuts, beans and whole wheat.
DV - 10mg
RDA - Women 31-50 years - 5mg - UL - ~
RDA - Women - Pregnancy - 6mg - UL - ~
RDA - Men 31-50 years - 5mg - UL - ~


Vitamin B6 is a water soluble vitamin that plays a major role in helping to catalyze chemical reactions that effect human metabolism, red blood cell formation, and brain functions. Studies have shown the B6 may help alleviate morning sickness in pregnant women.
Food sources include liver, chicken, salmon, bananas, soybeans, peanuts and fortified cereals. Strict vegetarians may need to increase B6 consumption by eating B6 fortified foods as the type of B6 from plants sources may not be easily absorbed.
DV - 2mg
RDA - Women 31-50 years - 1.3mg - UL - 100mg
RDA - Women - Pregnancy - 1.9mg - UL - 100mg
RDA - Men 31-50 years - 1.3mg - UL - 100mg


Vitamin B12 works together with folic acid for the healthy production and function of the cells of the blood, the immune system, hair and skin and intestinal lining. It also plays a major role in the production of nerve coverings. Deficiency may cause pernicious anemia, an autoimmune condition. Humans cannot synthesize vitamin B12 and since it only occurs naturally from animal food sources, strict vegetarians may need to consult their medical professional for the best intake alternatives such as supplements. Food sources include organ meats such as liver, kidney and heart, shellfish and other seafood, and milk and cheeses.
DV - 6mcg
RDA - Women 31-50 years - 2.4mcg - UL - ~
RDA - Women - Pregnancy - 2.6mcg - UL - ~
RDA - Men 31-50 years - 2.4mcg - UL - ~

Folate/Folic Acid

Folate is a water soluble B Complex found naturally in food sources. Folic acid is the synthetic version found in vitamin supplements and fortified foods. Working together with B6 and B12, folate is essential in the proper action of cell division and DNA production. It promotes healthy immune, nerve, and circulatory systems, skin and mucous membranes and is vital to the growth of the developing fetus. The Recommended Dietary Allowance of folate for Pregnant Women is 600 mcg daily in order to help prevent such birth defects as spina bifida and other neural tube defects. Folate is easily destroyed by cooking and by processing methods as canning and refining of grains. Food sources include liver, green leafy vegetables and fortified cereals and grains.
The UL for folate applies to synthetic forms obtained from supplements and/or fortified foods.
DV - 400mcg
RDA - Women 31-50 years - 400mcg - UL - 1000mcg
RDA - Women - Pregnancy - 600mcg - UL - 1000mcg
RDA - Men 31-50 years - 400mcg - UL - 1000mcg


Choline is a member of the B complex family. It plays a role in regulating cholesterol and helping to remove fat from the liver. A deficiency may cause liver damage. Another function of choline is to help produce certain brain chemicals and transmission of nerve impulses. Research has shown a correlation between choline consumption and memory enhancement. As brain development is crucial during fetus and infant growth, the RDA requirements for pregnant females is 450mg daily and 550mg daily for breast-feeding females.
Food sources include beef, beef liver, salmon, peanuts, soybeans, milk, broccoli and brussels sprouts.
DV - No recommendations have been set
RDA - Women 31-50 years - 425mg - UL - 3500mg
RDA - Women - Pregnancy - 450mg - UL - 3500mg
RDA - Men 31-50 years - 550mg - UL - 3500mg


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Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010
USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference
US Department of Health and Human Services
National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Daily Reference Intakes
U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Labeling and Nutrition Reports (FDA)
Office of Dietary Supplements-National Institutes of Health
Lipophilic and Hydrophilic Antioxidant Capacities of Common Foods in the United States.
The Linus Pauling Institute Micronutrient Information Center"

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